From 2012 to 2014, ECSECC supported the Eastern Cape Planning Commission (ECPC) in the development of the Eastern Cape Provincial Development Plan (PDP).
The Provincial Development Plan is the product of an elaborate process of research, analysis, engagement and discussion. Based on the principles of the National Development Plan, the development of the PDP started with a process of research, reflection and engagement. As part of this process, the ECPC in 2013 released two documents. The "Strategic Perspectives Towards Vision 2030" set out the principles, assumptions, vision, outcomes, goals and strategic actions for the PDP. The "Diagnostic Overview of the Eastern Cape" is a detailed report that includes data and analysis describing the main challenges, attributes and accomplishments of the province.
The PDP was then finally adopted by the Provincial Executive Council in October 2014 after a visioning and planning phase.
The diagnostic, strategic perspectives and PDP documents can be downloaded here.
The province's long-term development strategy is built on a focused set of goals, interventions and programmes. While these are informed by the country's overall development vision in the NDP and related policies and strategy, the province has tailored the national directives to respond to its regional circumstances.
At the centre of our development quest is the vision of well-being and flourishing for all in a thriving province. To achieve this vision, the province's development goals and interventions respond to three important questions, namely:
- How can we improve our human capabilities and worth?
- How can we improve our material and economic circumstances?
- What forms of agency are best suited to deliver on the first two objectives, and how can we build and strengthen institutional capabilities to enable this?
- In response to these questions, the ECPC has developed the following conceptual framework to inform the province's long-term development strategy, goals and strategic actions.
The Provincial Development Plan's Conceptual Framework
Human development is the principal focus of the vision. It refers to the development of mind, body and spirit for purposeful, conscientious and responsible action - through dynamic cultural systems underpinning a morally grounded socialisation; quality education and skills acquisition; knowledge creation and innovation; the arts, recreation and sports; healthy, harmonious living and quality healthcare systems; and enabling social infrastructure. Human development is understood to affirm the self-worth and social value of all citizens.
Economic opportunity and rights are both a means and an end for human development. The equitable and fair distribution of material resources and economic infrastructure is needed for inclusive socio-economic development, as well as equal opportunity and meaningful, dignified work and income - the economic philosophy of ilima/letsema. We seek to improve the ability of people to obtain gainful employment and ownership of enterprises and assets that will provide the economic basis for human development. There should be a particular focus on economic opportunities for under-educated and unskilled young people, in order to foster inclusion and rescue future society from the disruptive consequences of sections of the population living on the periphery of the economy. There should also be a particular interest in innovative and redistributive interventions that can transform the fortunes of the rural regions of the province while re-patterning the economy of the Eastern Cape.
By 'economic rights' we are specifically referring to the consideration of a basic threshold of material wherewithal for decent livelihoods.
Institutional capability refers to the individual and collective ability, power and willingness to participate and collaborate in the province's development. Participants include the state as a conscientious enabler and key actor in the development effort, citizen and civic organisations as champions of their own development, and the private sector as an ethical partner in development endeavours. There must be a healthy appreciation of each partner's role, as well as a healthy balance of interests and ethical conduct from all concerned, to ensure that the public good is not compromised. Social agency and personal responsibility are a critical part of this process. It is also important that the skills and talents of all citizens are developed and mobilised. This has to be supported by improved functioning of state institutions, particularly the provincial and local spheres of government.
The PDP seeks to achieve a flourishing and thriving province by strengthening positive interactions between human, economic and institutional development:
- Economic development contributes to human development through increased household incomes and greater fiscal resources for public services
- Economic development contributes to institutional development through increased fiscal resources for public institutions, parastatals, non-government organisations, private-sector partners and service providers to development programmes and projects
- Human development is a prerequisite for institutional development by providing well-educated and ethical institutional leadership and employees
- Human development contributes to economic development through a well-educated, creative, healthy and productive workforce
- Institutional development and the creation of a capable and developmental state are crucial for driving rapid and equitable economic development
- Institutional development contributes to human development through better use of public resources, for example, better health and education
Spatial development, particularly spatial planning, affects all three components of the PDP conceptual framework in terms of location, access, connectivity and mobility. Spatial and land-use legislation, planning, policy and incentives affect the location of public services, amenities and the investment of public resources. The implementation of the PDP must ensure that the interaction between people, development and ecosystems is well articulated and understood.
5 Goals for the Provincial Development Plan
There are five related goals set out for the PDP, all accommodating a rural development bias that is intended to address the spatial and structural imbalances highlighted as a critical challenge for the Eastern Cape. For each goal is summarised a vision, key objectives as well as strategic actions. Further detail on these is provided in the elaborated chapters around the goals in part 2 of this plan.
The five goals and the logic of their relationship are as summarised in the diagram below:
As can be seen in this diagram, the first three goals are set as core, with education and knowledge empowerment at the centre. All the goals also cross-enable each other. For instance, across the first three, economic well-being and an enlightened disposition are important to purchasing good health, while good health is important for effective learning and productive economic activity, and so forth.
The first three goals also feed to the realisation of the fourth goal, even as there are actions in the development of the fourth goal, such as infrastructure development, that also enable the first three goals.
The fifth goal enables all the first four, while it is also influenced by them - e.g. education and training being important for the development of capabilities for robust institutions.
A growing, inclusive and equitable economy
The PDP promotes a growing, inclusive and equitable economy. This includes a larger and more efficient provincial economy that optimally exploits the competitive advantages of the Eastern Cape, increased employment and reduced inequalities of income and wealth. Objectives and strategic actions for this goal are:
- Improved economic infrastructure that promotes new economic activity across all regions of the Eastern Cape. This will be achieved by improving provincial infrastructure planning; ensuring close collaboration with the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Committee (PICC); improving infrastructure maintenance; building new, and reviving old, irrigation infrastructure; establishing strategic freight and passenger corridors; positioning the Eastern Cape as a key investment hub in the energy sector and ensuring reliable energy supplies to high potential sectors; and working towards universal and cheap broadband access
- Accelerated economic development of rural areas and all regions. This will be achieved by developing and implementing regional development strategies based on the competitive potential of each region in the province; increasing rural economic production through investments in agriculture and new industries in rural regions, particularly in the former Bantustans; and using infrastructure investment to promote equitable regional development, trigger new economic activity and crowd in private capital
- Stronger industry and enterprise support. This will be achieved by encouraging and creating partnerships to drive economic development; improving the use of and increasing public resources for industry and enterprise support (micro, small, medium and large businesses and cooperatives); ensuring the development and supply of skills to growth sectors; supporting R&D and innovation initiatives; developing new enabling policy instruments; strengthening the capabilities of regional and local economic development agencies to more efficiently drive integrated local development action; and augmenting provincial capacities for economic intelligence, policy analyses, planning, monitoring and evaluation
- An accelerated and completed land-reform process. This will be achieved by designing, implementing and completing a new land redistribution plan; conducting communal land tenure reform; fast-tracking the land restitution process; and supporting the productive use of resettled land
- Rapid development of high-potential economic sectors. This will be achieved by implementing sector strategies.
The table below summarises suggested high-level sector strategies:
Sector strategies for the Eastern CapeGoal 2:
An educated, empowered and innovative citizenry
The PDP seeks to ensure that people define their identity, sustain their livelihoods, live healthy lives and raise healthy families, develop a just society and economy, and play an effective role in the development of their communities, as well as the politics and governance of the state at all levels. Objectives and strategic actions for this goal are:
- Access to quality ECD. A basic threshold will be guaranteed for child health and nutritional security. At a minimum, the province will endeavour to provide nutritional support to all children as quickly as possible and address the malnutrition and stunting that has affected many children from poor families. The provincial ECD programme will also be characterised by quality, culturally sensitive stimulation, play and early learning. The province will establish a structure to ensure that ECD is properly integrated and coordinated, so that contributions from various institutional collaborators are properly guided and managed
- Quality basic education. High-quality basic education is based on strong foundations of literacy and numeracy during primary schooling, the use of mother-tongue languages across the primary grade range (R to 7), building foundations for bilingualism are built across these grades, as well as quality and relevant teaching and learning materials
- A critical part of this strategy is improving the capabilities of adults in families and mobilising whole communities to support learning and school development. Strengthening secondary-level schooling - general and further education and training phases - is also important. This level should build seamlessly from primary school, underpinned by the equitable development of quality high schools and targeted centres of excellence across the province - maths, science, agriculture and technology academies, and centres of excellence for pupils with learning disabilities and restoration of historical schools
- Teacher development. New relationships will be forged and existing relationships strengthened between practitioners in schools and theoreticians at higher education institutions. The objective of such structured relationships will be to enable - (i) a participatory, praxis development of curriculum for teacher education and development both pre- and in-service, (ii) collaboration in teacher-training and support between practitioners in schools and the various branches of the Department of Education, lecturers and researchers in higher education institutions, and (iii) collaboration around the co-development of teaching and learning resources. A Professional Development and Innovation Coordinating Council, lean but of high quality, is proposed as an instrument to manage this collaborative development.
- Improved leadership, management and governance. This should ensure effective leadership and management in schools and from supporting communities, improved leadership and support for schools from the district and sub-district levels of the Department of Education, as well as accountable governance across all levels of the system.
- Infrastructure. Adequate infrastructure should be equitably provided, and public school infrastructure optimally used.
- Quality and relevant post-schooling with expanded access. While higher education institutions continue with their traditional mission of research and teaching, new demands should be pressed upon these institutions for relevance and innovation that can bring about a qualitative difference to our collective well-being in the long term. There should be a new commitment to better understand the real nature of challenges facing present-day society, our economy, our ecology, and the sciences and other apparatus that sustain and re-create these. The end objective should be to reshape research, knowledge production and reproduction, as well as education and training to better serve the creation of a world we would like to remake for the flourish of all.
In the context of the Eastern Cape, and in line with policy developments relating to the post-school education and training sector, this means a careful reconstruction of a differentiated quality post-school sector. The province's four universities will be consolidated and further developed; FET colleges, which are transforming into TVET colleges, will be improved; and appropriately configured community colleges will be introduced, as propositioned in the White Paper for Post-School Education and Training (2013).
A healthy population
The PDP seeks to ensure that all citizens of the Eastern Cape live longer and healthy lives. This will mainly be achieved by providing quality healthcare to people in need. The health system must value patients, care for communities, provide reliable service and value partnerships. In addition, the system should rest on a good primary healthcare platform and be integrated across primary, secondary and tertiary levels of healthcare.
To achieve the NDP 2030 targets of a life expectancy of 70 years and an AIDS-free under-20 generation, the objectives and strategic actions for this goal are:
- Health system stability through primary healthcare re-engineering. The Eastern Cape aims to invert its priorities and place people-centred primary healthcare above hospital-based curative care. This will require system re-engineering and public commitment and support. A strong primary healthcare system would lay the foundation for a service delivery platform that strengthens lower levels of care. The province aims to improve the health system by building on what exists. Stabilising the health service platform includes establishing robust referral systems, stabilising leadership and ensuring appropriate health system financing through budget allocations from the Treasury, the implementation of national health insurance, and the consolidation of robust financial management practices.
- Quality improvements. Health system leaders need to ensure that quality issues in health services are addressed, including workforce planning, development and management; improving the quality of management; enhancing clinical governance; improving workforce skills and knowledge; refurbishing or redeveloping physical infrastructure; ensuring the acquisition and proper maintenance of medical technology; modernising and improving supply chain management; strengthening support services; and establishing reliable connectivity in health facilities.
- Leadership and social partnering. To improve leadership, the PDP proposes the following critical strategic actions: creating long-term stability, particularly at senior levels, establishing and achieving the requisite knowledge and technical expertise at appropriate levels, and establishing leadership development programmes for health.
Social partnering refers to community and health-sector integration and a provincial civic health education campaign. This is underpinned by the belief that individuals and families should take ownership of their health. To encourage social partnering, the PDP proposes the following strategic actions: developing community health education and awareness programmes, intensifying health promotion through the community health worker programme, and improving the level of community commitment to the governance of local health facilities.
Social determinants of health and disease. The social determinants of health in the province involve a complex mix of political, social and economic issues. They also relate to matters outside of the direct scope and control of the Department of Health, such as water, sanitation, nutrition, education, energy, communications, transport and infrastructure. As a result, the response to this challenge cuts across various goals in the plan, including improving education, developing the economy and the related positive effect on income and livelihoods, and improving human settlements and other social infrastructure. The plan emphasises the importance of interventions and programmes to improve nutrition and food security, road infrastructure, water and sanitation, the safe disposal of refuse and waste, as well as proper spatial planning for human settlements. The health sector should play a role in planning for these programmes.
Vibrant, equitably enabled communities
The PDP seeks to ensure that by 2030, the Eastern Cape is characterised by vibrant communities in which people can responsibly exercise their growing freedoms. The plan aims to address spatial disparities across the province, and seeks to guide the development and use of instruments to achieve this. These instruments include legislation and policy, spatial targeting of infrastructure and other investments, and planning itself. Where and how people live and work is the most visible manifestation of spatial equity. Objectives and strategic actions for this goal are:
- Spatial planning and land-use management. An updated provincial spatial development plan must be developed to translate the vision outlined in the PDP. This plan should express a clear strategy for future spatial changes, while being responsive to a dynamic and moving population's needs. The provincial spatial development plan should be completed by the end of 2015 and be supported by more detailed plans for identified regions. The plans will be implemented through local spatial development frameworks driven by local municipalities. This will require the strengthening of provincial and local capabilities, and elevating spatial planning to a provincial priority. In addition, spatial planning must be enabled by a functional and integrated land administration system. Now that the relevant national legislation (the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013) is in place, the province needs a provincial system that is suited to its historical and cultural context, with distinct socio-spatial zones and attendant planning legislation. This process would include the repeal of old-order planning legislation and ordinances pertaining to all areas within the Eastern Cape.
- Integrated, quality human settlements. Dispersed mandates and vertical accountability make integrated planning for settlements, space and infrastructure difficult. Departmental and institutional mandates should be reviewed to establish a central physical planning authority and clearing house for the province. This authority would develop criteria for project approval and provide hands-on support to settlements and infrastructure planning at provincial and local level. This should be linked to the budgeting process. The province will establish a provincial spatial planning observatory and information management system to support the proposed central authority, relevant provincial departments and local government. This will increasingly be used as the basis for project planning and approval. The province will need to build technical planning capability and improve the technical, administrative and political interface. Substantive community participation in settlement planning and design is an important feature of development.
- Universal access to social infrastructure. To achieve universal access to social infrastructure (water, sanitation, electricity and refuse) the province will improve infrastructure planning capability and review its infrastructure delivery mechanisms. A provincial infrastructure plan will be developed by 2015 as part of the spatial development plan. To achieve universal access to water and sanitation, the province will upgrade and rehabilitate existing, and develop new, bulk-water supply and waste-water infrastructure; manage, monitor, protect and use water resources; review institutional arrangements for water resource management and water services management; and expand water services and sanitation to cover under-serviced rural areas and informal settlements. The province will review and resource the integrated public transport plan to ensure an improved public transport network.
- Promote safer communities. Personal safety is a necessary condition for human development, improved quality of life and enhanced productivity. This is particularly important for women, who are often more vulnerable and less likely to achieve their potential in unsafe environments. As part of this plan, the province will increase community participation in crime prevention and community safety initiatives by strengthening and expanding a variety of community safety platforms. The province will focus on combating crimes and violence against women and children through active civic campaigns. It will also take measures to strengthen the provincial criminal justice system.
Capable, conscientious and accountable institutions
This goal seeks to build capable, conscientious, and accountable institutions that engender and sustain development partnerships across domains of social action - public, civic and private. It sets out actions for the mobilisation and construction of multi-agency partnerships for development as well as the seeding of conditions for the emergence of a strong, capable, independent and responsible civil society committed to province development at all levels - from local level action to the regional and provincial levels. It promotes the building of requisite capabilities that will anchor these multi-agency partnerships, and propagates a development that is human-centred and people-driven, as well as democratic practices whose primary purpose is liberating and empowering people to meaningfully participate in their own development.
The objectives and strategic actions for this goal address:
- A leadership renewal across society: There is a need to establish a critical mass of a leadership cadre that will manifest inspirational leadership in all domains of public action - the political, administrative, as well as the social domains. With regard to particularly the political and administrative domains, it is important that a firmer stance be adopted towards fostering a culture of accountability and consequence management where ethical and/or performance breaches occur. The drive for leadership renewal should further commit to a principled long term development process that is supported by a continuous conscientisation of public servants, other institutional development partners, activists and the broader citizenry on the importance of a persistent, patient and enduring co-operative pursuit of the shared goals of the PDP. Also important here will be the development and/or deepening of the technical capabilities of leaders of all key sectors of society so that they play their roles competently in the shared development process.
- Institutional development: In addition to strengthening the capabilities of leaders and key functionaries, there should be a commitment to a systematic development of key institutions and organisations facilitating and supporting development at all levels, from the local level upward. This should be aided by the establishment of a provincial School of Governance and Leadership to innovatively drive the development and renewal of leadership, strategic and technical capabilities of the province across sectors and spheres of government, as well as organisational systems.
- A capable provincial and local government: This is about building a capable state committed to a just development; a state with a people-centred strategic orientation, and a state capable of propagating ideas and mobilising society behind a common vision and development agenda. It is about a state shored up by institutional capabilities to champion and facilitate development as well as effective and efficient services. It is about a state capable of building and sustaining development partnerships essential to driving a common vision for the development of the province. Internal to the state, this implies enhancing efficiencies and impact through well-coordinated programme-driven intergovernmental actions across sectors and levels. Finally, it is about strengthening the cohesion of the coordinative axis responsible for overall strategic leadership, support and co-ordination of the work of government, especially the Office of the Premier (as the core of the coordinative axis), Co-operative Governance and Traditional Affairs and the Provincial Treasury.
- Multi-agency partnerships: In consonance with the ideals of the NDP the province has committed to embracing the utility of, building the institutional capabilities and related instrumentalities of, as well as positioning a developmental agency extending beyond the confines of government alone - the idea of an organised citizen-centric multi-agency for development action. The aim is to cultivate social and shared values and practical development actions that bind stakeholders at the provincial, regional and local levels, across and within sector. Multi-agency partnerships should also contribute to promoting a culture of dialogue, accords and practical commitments, as well as platforms for citizen participation and joint accountability which manifest a new compact of an inclusive development across the province.
- Citizen-centred development: The province should build and deepen an approach to development, as well as capabilities that enable citizens to substantively participate in decisions on the kind of development they desire, its detailed planning and implementation, its critical evaluation, and further planning for progressively consolidating action. In doing so, the people become the principal agents of their own development, are affirmed and over time grow in their confidence and ability to manage their development path. This is about enhancing the utility of instruments such as the IDP process, as well as introducing other instruments and methodologies that can stimulate and sustain greater citizen participation.